recently occurred in succession in Tibetan areas of Sichuan Ganzi Tibetan self-immolation, once again draw attention to China’s ethnic problems of great concern.
regional ethnic autonomy was originally established national policy of the People’s Republic, and written into the Constitution. But in the past 60 years of time, autonomous and has not been really implemented. Communist atheistic ideology of Mao Zedong’s class struggle and the logic of “democratic reform” the name of the force of social transformation areas seriously damaged the national religion, social structure and cultural ecology in Tibet, Xinjiang and other regions, traditional religious minorities and culture has been devastating destruction. Since reform and opening, the central government has increased investment in minority areas, minority areas of the economy and people’s livelihood has improved. However, the unique party authoritarian regime, “party secretary Alone” and most of the ethnic minority areas in fact exist, “Han Chinese in power” phenomenon remains the same, but remain autonomous in the paper.
with the recent Tibet “3.14 Incident” and Xinjiang “7.5 event” of the outbreak, institutional conflicts and ethnic conflicts between the overlay and ethnic areas “maintenance of stability,” the situation is more severe.
exiled Tibetans “middle way” advocated
Beijing has been accused of far abroad, the Dalai Lama, “Tibet independence”, is to create “split” in the background. This is of course contrary to fact. The truth is, the Dalai Lama had to give up “Tibetan independence” of the claims and hopes to achieve genuine autonomy in Tibet, Tibetans in exile that is the “middle way” ideas.
2008 October with the Dalai Lama’s representatives in the Central United Front Work Department officials eighth round of talks, he had submitted to the “autonomy of the Tibetan People real proposal,” explained the exile Tibetans on how the People Constitution of the Republic autonomous Tibet within the framework of the basic views. These ideas include: respect for the Tibetan national identity; hope the Tibetan peoples’ identity, national culture and spirit can be preserved and continued; want to live the Tibetan people since ancient times fragile plateau eco-environment can be protected; in ethnic Tibetan areas to implement real autonomy, and their implementation to meet the needs of Tibetans, features, and focus; protect Tibet’s language, culture, religion; to develop part of the education system in Tibet, and their self-management; to promote economic self-reliance of Tibetans; self-management and internal order in Tibet public safety; want to prevent the mass migration of Tibetan moving, changing population structure will lead to the demise of Tibetan characteristics; People’s Republic of all Tibetans living in Tibetan areas into a unified whole within the autonomous system, no longer divided belong to different provinces; autonomous local legislation, as with other provincial legislation, not by the National People’s Congress for approval; to reach the agreement, the Tibetan government in exile will lose its raison d’etre and immediately dissolved; and so on.
should be said that these ideas are good, and its basic requirements is reasonable, but was accused of United Front Work Department officials “disguised independence” or “split” (see the CPC Central Committee United Front Work Department Zhu Wei Qun, Vice Minister in November 2008 interview with the BBC conversation: the Dalai Lama’s autonomy demands independence in disguise). In a sense, we can understand the Beijing authorities ‘difficulties’: the national question indeed affect the whole body, unless determined to be fundamental changes in national institutions, the national question can not alone be the ultimate solution. And if you grasp the logic of “Jesus Christ is not easy to become entrenched Communist Party”, the national question will continue to drag on, become, until the final explosion.
Why the national question has become “the bottleneck difficulty”?
current situation, China has become a national constitutional reform and democratic transformation of the bottleneck of the difficulty. This issue is handled well, China can survive the transition to democracy that hurdle, and usher in a unified, multi-ethnic constitutional rule by China’s new era; if not handled properly, it will exacerbate ethnic conflict or even lead to secession and democracy transformation itself may fall short by a fatal challenge.
This is no alarmist. Just think, if the Chinese Communists came to power to continue the present rule, and refused to implement constitutional reform, social conflicts continued to accumulate, fermentation, sooner or later the outbreak of civil strife, and even cause the entire country out of control; In this case, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Tibet, or even minorities are requirements may be made independent, and this requirement in that case would seem so natural, so reasonable; but the proportion of the domestic population, after all, the vast majority of Han Chinese, most of them will not be in favor of secession, which will allow the Han democrats in a very embarrassing situation; worse, then, is likely to camp from the old system, a “Lawrence of” character, the anti-national division, the anti-secession in the name of the people invited to buy, get the people to support the Han against the liberal constitutional reformers, repression “ethnic separatist activities” in the country to re-implement an iron fist rule. Overall, the results, will block the process of democratic transition in China, making China a few years back.
Therefore, the national question, serious matter, it is not only about the freedom of all ethnic brothers and well-being, but also about the constitutional government of China’s success and future!
is why, as long as one percent of hope, we need to do one hundred percent efforts to strive for peace and interaction within and outside the system transformation. Or, even if the sudden transformation in the inevitable, and we hope that the nation’s democracy, the cause for the re-transformation to the fundamental well-being of all ethnic brothers and long-term interests, to avoid splitting, joint fight for constitutional government in China a better tomorrow!
constitutional future of China’s ethnic policy
future constitutional China’s ethnic policy should be like? I believe that China should continue to the next, and truly implement the constitutional principle of national regional autonomy; the same time, taking into account some of the ethnic minority areas have a large number of non-ethnic population live in this reality, should be initiated in these areas, multi-ethnic co-existence of government, live in harmony principles. I believe that in a republic within the framework of two-track, self-help classification of regional ethnic autonomy in ethnic regions or multi-ethnic coexistence of governance, for example, is basically the future of the Tibet Autonomous Region, the provincial level will be a single national self-governance; and Guangxi, Yunnan and other places of regional ethnic autonomy may be mainly at the county level, provinces (autonomous regions) are more multi-ethnic coexistence reflects the characteristics of cohabitation.
according to the principle of dual republic, or the implementation of regional ethnic autonomy in areas of national coexistence of governance, than pure Han Chinese regions have more autonomy, which is mainly reflected in the use of their language, develop their own education, to protect the nation special cultural and religious heritage, carrying out an independent foreign cultural exchange. However, the autonomous republic in the region should follow the two-track focus on the administrative management of the dual principle of responsible, autonomous regions and the Chief Executive in addition to representatives of the autonomous agency, but also to the Central Government. Nation region’s water resources, mineral resources, wildlife resources are the national and the common wealth of all the Chinese people, for their protection and rational development of the central government and regional ethnic self-government shared responsibility. Regional national defense and foreign affairs by the Central Government.
given that most national economic and social development still lagged behind that in the future constitutional China’s central government is still obliged to help the ethnic autonomous areas through various forms of better and more healthily. The more developed eastern and central regions and the mainland provinces and the establishment of closer economic ties with Hong Kong and Macao region has the responsibility to support the development of minority areas.
as representative bodies of the central level, the constitutional future of China’s parliament third hospital, that inter-provincial joint House will be the coordination and handling of national affairs play an important role.
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