This article is excerpted from the 1991 event research, Zhang Yu Wen, China Youth Publishing House
fled and No. 256 plane crash, is downright emergencies, both for China and for the Mongolians, are unexpected.When Lin Biao’s plane after takeoff, the Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai did not know his true intentions and the final destination. Zhou Enlai only know the situation, a serious problem, and ordered to open the radar closely monitored. The aircraft after take-off from Beidaihe, began the toward Beijing to put an aircraft, but when 14 minutes later slowly turning, and then west and then north, the situation is all the more wonderful after Zhou Enlai decisively to the Air Force Command dispatch room to issue the command: “Please call to No. 256 aircraft, they flew back. say that regardless of which airport to land, I Zhou Enlai to the airport to pick up.” (Shao Yihai: “joint fleet” destruction “, the Spring and Autumn Press, 1985, 291), however, No. 256 aircraft open the radio, hear the call of the ground, but refused to make any answer.
Lin Biao’s plane beyond a border, the original has been some premonition of Zhou Enlai, the worst fears finally happened, he angrily scolded, “traitor” from the Great Hall of the People immediately drove to the Zhongnanhai, face to face reported Mao Zedong. Subsequently, they decided to release the national ban on empty Order: shut down all airports and all aircraft be grounded.According to Mao’s instructions, Zhou Enlai night convened in Beijing CPC Central Committee, the meeting announced the defection of Lin Biao, presided over the study emergency measures to cope with various situations.
stayed up all night, Zhou Enlai personally to the 11 Military District and the 29 provinces, municipalities, autonomous regions and is mainly responsible for the people called and informed the flight by Lin Biao, Local authorities were urged to obey the command of the CPC Central Committee and Chairman Mao. For confidential consideration, Zhou Enlai discretion language: “the first plenary of the Lushan Conference’s first speech, the with wife , the son, sitting aircraft fled to the direction of the Mongolian People’s Republic to go! You must listen to the CPC Central Committee and Chairman Mao’s command, from now on, immediate access to emergency preparedness. “when some subject, then the momentary reaction, however, but also to make further inquiries, Zhou Enlai immediately fight off their discourse, and anxiously asked: “What, you do not understand?” (gold washed and editor: “Zhou Enlai Biography, Central Literature Publishing House, 1998, 1041)
On the morning of September 13, Zhou Enlai convened meeting of the relevant leaders of the Central Military Commission and the General Staff, analysis of Lin Biao and the flight of the military movements that may occur, research within the anti-coup, foreign anti-aggression troops are deployed. Decided to concentrate on the three mechanized divisions, two tank divisions, one artillery division, and four guards divisions, elite troops of the 10 divisions by the Beijing Garrison Command, a unified command. Beijing North Side, South Side, Jingdong Beijing Capital International Airport, north of Beijing South, Baoding, defensive areas; descending air defense, anti-landing, anti-mechanized troops raid is the main mode of combat. That night, the troops entered the scheduled combat zone.strengthen alert
Zhongnanhai, the Guard troops, the construction of the bunkers, erection of a machine gun and anti-aircraft weapons. Mao Zedong, has quietly moved out of Zhongnanhai, the original housing, came to the Great Hall of the 118 Hall of temporary accommodation.On the morning of September 14, Department of State specializing in diplomatic measures. Was made four estimates: (a) by the Lin Biao come forward published treason declaration; (b) by Lin Biao or other foreign broadcasts or newspaper issued a statement; (c) of Lin Biao and his followers temporarily appearance, not directly published conversation, objective coverage by foreign news agencies to Lin Biao and a country has reached a certain place; (d) temporarily issued a message in order to observe the domestic dynamic. The meeting discussed external representations and how to position the problem in such circumstances. It is said that for the first possibility, the drafting of the manuscript of “the government statement, in order of need. (Sun first: “In the desert there,” China Youth Press, 2001, pages 169 – 171)
This all shows that Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, Lin Biao’s escape was surprised, and do not know what action will be taken after the Lin Biao fled China faced look like the situation, they made the worst intention.
the first to know No. 256 Trident aircraft crashed message, the Mongolian side. However, they do not know if this is the plane of Lin Biao, to judge them according to the wreckage of the crash, which is a Chinese military aircraft.Department of Foreign Affairs of
the first week of negotiations, hindsight is dramatic.
8 am and 30 minutes on September 14, Vice Minister of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia amount 尔敦比列格 an emergency meeting with the newly appointed Chinese Ambassador to Mongolia Xu Wenyi, reported that at 2:00 on the 13th or so, in the province of Mongolia Kent Bell He 10 km south of the mining area, a jet crash. Aircraft belonging to the People’s Liberation Army Air Force aircraft, crew, including a women, unfortunately, were all killed. Chinese military aircraft penetrated the territory of Mongolia to make an oral protest to the Chinese Government on this matter to make a formal explanation.Ambassador
Xu heard the news surprise, he dare not neglect, immediately report the country, to consult how to deal with. 12:50 Embassy in Mongolia Express telegram will be sent to the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs on behalf of Minister Ji Pengfei hands. Ji Pengfei after reading the rejoicing is chairing the meeting of the core leadership team of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, heart sinking, originally extremely tight hanging immediately put down, the participants said the phrase: “the plane crash, a wonderful end!” And immediately sent the telegram sent to the Great Hall of the People, the report where Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai. About 14:00 or so, has been continuous work over 50 hours did not sleep, just sleep Zhou Enlai was an emergency wake-up, first saw the telegraph. He suddenly excited, and kept saying: “Ah, which killed his death!” Attend replaced pajamas, holding a telegram in person trot to the 118 reports of the Office of Mao Zedong.
so, Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai, Lin Biao fled after about 36 hours to know the outcome of the Lin Biao and the machine crash. They sighed with relief, because people die after the Xu urgent concerns also a little can be slowed down. But they still decided, did not get conclusive evidence of Lin Biao fell to his death, there is no to clarify the facts truth before, both internally and externally must be kept strictly confidential. As a result, the Department of State indicates in the Mongolian embassy to continue to the crash investigation and negotiations, and progress report on the country at any time.September 18, 2009, Lin Biao fled after five days, CPC Central Committee issued the first informed of the defection of Lin Biao. In this famous number 57 documents, at the very start for some is: “the CPC Central Committee formally notified: Lin Biao on September 13, 1971, fled in panic, panic collaborators, rebels of treason, self-defeating.”
Since then, the “1991″ events communicated in accordance with the top down, outside the party within the party after the order progressed, Lin Biao fled event to the world public. About before and after the National Day, at home and abroad all know that China has undergone earth-shattering Incident, Lin Biao and Mao Zedong break, not a coup, fled in his death
Since then, at home and abroad around the Lin Biao and the plane crash, speculation and argument can be summed up:
(a) Nishiyama killed
from a 1983 in U.S. published in the English book, entitled “TheConspiracyandDeathofLinBiao of Yaomingle. In June 1983, by Taiwan current affairs culture translated into Chinese, title translated as “conspiracy and death of Lin Biao”, translated as Yao Ming management Publishing Limited. In August 1983, Hong Kong Far Eastern Review Press, the book translated and published, the title translated as “the death of Lin Biao – abortive coup behind the scenes secrets behind authors translated for Yao Yue, and pointed out that the Chinese homonym for “Naruto”.In this book, the Lin Biao and Ye Qun in the Western Hills, Mao Zedong, carefully arranged dinner after a rocket killed the Trident ondor Khan crashed aircraft is the Liguo riding, the central document published by The crash site photo for forgery.
book is described:
over the Division Deputy Minister of operations,
Liguo deliberate development Shanghai group “and other secret organizations. One day, he said Zhou Yuchi, to prepare the assassination and the overthrow of Mao Zedong, Zhou drafting armed coup plan, and stressed that this is the meaning of his father. Little later, Lin Biao Jiaowu the Faxian to pay to Wu at the end: “Now the President is determined to die before him, he wants you all to accompany me to go to Babaoshan must therefore be the use of special means,” to act quickly control the situation, “Mao’s flag do not have to take off, but his power to get rid of. Wu Faxian informed of Lin Biao with Huang Yongsheng had a similar conversation, and soon also will make with Li Zuopeng, Qiu Tan.exquisite the
Lin Biao and his idea of ”special means”, with the Liguo the scheme to parallel the “palace coup Plan, Ye Qun and Huang, Wu, Li, Qiu” acclaim plan. ” The core of the plan is to manufacture Sino-Soviet conflict, the opportunity to kill Mao Zedong. Implementation Measures for a surprise attack against the Soviet Union, the other is the secret contacts with the Soviet Union in advance, the cooperation of the Soviet war-making; war broke out, please Mao hid Yuquan Hill fortifications to protect themselves, and then use gas bombs to kill the hair , burned to ashes; achieve their goals with the Soviet Union “from the war to a truce, hostilities into an alliance.” Plan established, let the General Staff of the Lin Biao and the gang of Soviet Intelligence Service, to identify in a double spy Wu Zonghan Wu to convey their intentions to the Soviet Union. But Sue does not believe that is purely a joke.Liguo, the assassination plan
Lin Biao and Zhou Enlai learned from several avenues, the weeks immediately communicated to Mao and Wang Dongxing, recommends immediate end to the south patrol of the line, but before arriving in Beijing, to make precise how of Fu Linbiao action decision. Mao Zedong arrived in Tianjin, Zhou Enlai notice Mao, Lin Biao and the accident and returned to Beijing from Beidaihe.
8:10 on the evening of September 12, Lin Biao and Ye Qun with seafood and ginseng gift, arrived at the villa of Mao Zedong in Yuquan Mountain. During the meeting, Mao Zedong specifically to open a bottle of the Ming Lao Chen wine to entertain the Lin Biao and couples. Hair first talked about after the south of inspections, as well as a pleasant journey, and then it comes to longevity, and with each other and take their food and Lin Biao, intimate and warm. Banquet, Jiang Qing, Zhou Enlai, Kang Sheng, Wang Dongxing. The end of the dinner, which few people leave in advance, the President and retention of Lin Biao and Ye Qun talked about 20 minutes. Night, 8:54, forest, leaves, official leave, Mao and Wang Dongxing watched them on the train.
night 11 o’clock sharp, Mao’s villa both inside and outside could hear the two successive loud explosions. It turned out that Lin Biao car to 15 kilometers per hour pass through the tortuous path outside the villa, slip in the corner from seven to eight meters roadblocks to stop. At this time, the bomb squad of the 8341 troops in ambush in the vicinity to see the signal to the rocket, then pull the trigger, the instant a deafening explosion, a 40 cm rocket impartial hit the rear of the car, and then The second rocket fired in the middle of the car, the car several parts of the flame into the air. The front seat two people blown to pieces, women in the back seat, above the waist was bombed into a pile of rags and bones, sitting next to her men fried only half of his face, but the body still partially intact.
these photos with the Central Council published differ materially from the photo to see to the senior cadres, which is the Chinese Embassy in Mongolia filming the crash scene. Needless to say, the Lin Biao and lying on the pictures of the wreckage, and Ye Qun, Liguo photos are transformed.
was Liguo to the western suburbs airport suddenly become overwhelmed, Zhou Yuchi told him to immediately take the Trident aircraft take-off. Liguo asked Zhou own how to do, Zhou said that he could take a helicopter to escape, will meet at the agreed place.
Zhou Enlai to find Huang Yongsheng as saying that Lin Biao had confessed his secret activities, pending the command will be subject to review. Huang Yongsheng was no longer avoid the room Lin Biao yield, he can only do what I do. Weeks Huang Wu Faxian, Li Zuopeng, Qiu will make phone calls, said he had pleaded guilty. These people see no choice but to have pleaded guilty. Week to Wu Faxian go to the Air Force command post, to the Military Region Air Force and command center issued an order prohibiting the taking off and landing of any aircraft of the airports of the country, and asked whether he can force the escape jet down. Wu instructed Beijing air force commander Li occasion of Thailand, sent four F-7 aircraft take off from the Yangcun airport chase aircraft Trident jet in Inner Mongolia. When the plane flew toward the Sino-Mongolian border, Zhou asked how do Wu, Wu advocated to shoot it down, week agreed to Wu let the occasion of Thailand ordered close to the border areas, three missile battalions fired surface to air missiles. Aircraft into Mongolia’s airspace, it disappeared from the radar screen. According to the Air Force attack effects analysis report that the first batch of missiles has aircraft hit so injured, but the driving skills smart the Pan Jingyin immediately reduce the height to avoid radar tracking.
256 Trident aircraft crashed, sent to the crash site to investigate the Chinese Embassy in Ulan Bator. Embassy by telegram returned to the Beijing Ministry of Foreign Affairs was the secret report of Premier Zhou, marked with the words “81029 top-secret documents”, which said the crash passengers aged between 20-50 years of age. Embassy efforts to arrange to transport the body back to China, but later received an order – in fact it is directly handed down by Mao Zedong – a dead body in situ buried near the crash site.
the Soviet Union and Mongolia are to send technical personnel to bury the bodies of the test, at least some of the Soviet Union’s autopsy personnel do not believe that Lin Biao is one of the passengers died of that crash.
this is purely ridiculous malicious fabrication. (Sun first: in the desert over there “, the 2001 edition of the China Youth Press, 318 ~ 325)
(b) missile shot down
This is divided into two branches, a branch of the Chinese shot down another branch Somun shot down that.
so-called China shot down, it is said that Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, the Lin Biao defection, for fear he fled to the Soviet Union in the Soviet Union’s help to fight back, or outside instigation, command of the Chinese civil war, they ordered the People’s Liberation Army with surface to air missiles of Lin Piao’s plane shot down.
in the Liguo select the “fiancee” Zhang Ning’s book disclosed. Zhang Ning, the fall of Lin Biao and the plane before and after the statement is inconsistent. Her, “Zhang Ning: they write their own” one wrote: “air force commander Wu Faxian, and Zhou Enlai on the night of the 12th with surveillance radar tracking of, Faxian Wu Ye Qun is closely related to fear of getting himself into trouble, take the initiative suggested:” if they would want it down? “Zhou Enlai was to stop it.” (Zhang Ning: “Ning: write your own own” Writers Publishing House, 1998, 257), but she “dust robbery (Zhang Ning:” Dust robbery Ming Pao Press, published in 1997), a book, but also to borrow the words of one demobilized soldiers of the Second Artillery, aircraft missile hit down. The demobilized soldiers said: the time of the accident was my soldier at the base, we received a fire command, do not know what goals the future to hear the file to convey, I realized that the Lin Biao and landline. “Zhang Ning asked him not to engage in wrong, the fight is probably Zhou Yuchi hijacked planes. The demobilized soldiers laughed: “which helicopters with missiles? Zhou Yuchi helicopter was forced to land in the outskirts of Beijing, useless fire. The direction of our missile launchers, not Beijing. We use a new missile, warhead into reverse explosion was wounded by a plane. “(Sun first:” In the desert there, “China Youth Press, 2001, 350)
so-called Somun shoot down Somun surveillance radar Lin Biao and the plane crossed the Sino-Mongolian border, very suddenly, the big aircraft echo Somun thought it was the Chinese invasion bombers would launch surface-to-air missiles to shoot down.The background
This is: when the Sino-Soviet and Sino-Mongolian relations tense, two years ago, in March 1969, there had been Treasure Island event, the Sino-Soviet border guards in northeast China Ussuri River on the Treasure Island armed conflict, almost led to large-scale war. News that the Marshal of the Soviet Defense Minister Gelieqike even threatened a “surgical” nuclear strike on China, “once and for all eliminate the threat of China”. Mongolia to follow the Soviet anti-China, the Soviet Union in the Sino-Mongolian border Chen heavily, Lin Biao plane into the direction of long-range surveillance radar, air defense missile sites, many military airport near Seoul sweat away from the temperature in an aviation division of the Soviet Union. According to Lin Biao and the plane crashed near the scene of Mongolia, the people said, had heard the rush of “ugly” hum “to see” from the southwest to north fly over an aircraft braved the fire, flying quite low in Batu hematoxylin brain Erbu over a circle around the Tumen mountain, flying along the direction of Zhasen valley southwest, louder and louder, probably less than 20 minutes, the crash of in Subu Er ancient basin. did not hear a big explosion sound, only to see the site fire groaning. Accordingly speculation is likely to Lin Biao and landline Somun hit by a missile and crashed.
missile shot down the two statements have in common is the first aircraft hit by missiles, aircraft and then crash when attempting to forced landing, rather than be hit by the missile volley explosion.
This missile shot down that there is a: aircraft wing at the wing root, the large holes of a diameter of more than 40 cm. (Sun first: “In the desert there,” China Youth Press, 2001, 194, 359)
(c) an emergency landing crashed
This is the Chinese side of the crash site investigation personnel within the military about expert come to the conclusion through the analysis.
said that 256 aircraft crash, forced landing failure. In the dark night, in the exotic land of unknown, it is forced to land in case there is no ground organization and command, is extremely dangerous. This, Lin Biao and the plane’s pilot is certainly clear. However, the aircraft is the reason for the implementation of an emergency landing, but also as a last resort, because oil is not enough, has been unable to continue the flight. Trident aircraft fill up to 21 tons, from the western suburbs of Beijing airport to fly to Shanhaiguan in the evening of September 12 did not fill, an increase of only 15 tons of oil. Lin Biao, from Shanhaiguan fled in panic due to rapid, not had time to refuel. It is estimated that the aircraft took off from Shanhaiguan Airport, fuel tank, the oil 12. 5 tons, from Shanhaiguan to the crash site, flying a total of about 120 minutes, about 10 tons of fuel, so aircraft kept the oil is only about 2.5 tons. At this time the fuel tank, part of the oil pump pumping up. In this way, the aircraft should continue to avoid radar flying at low altitude, can only fly up to more than 20 minutes. Despite the crash site from the airstrip of ondor Khan only sixty to seventy kilometers, if the landing to where the oil is enough; but because there is no pilot on board, ground navigation, pilots at night is difficult to determine their exact location, This is coupled with an unfamiliar routes, pilots feel tension – one fled in panic, was not prepared for the technical aspects; two belong to illegally crossing the border, fearing Somun air defense forces shot down, many factors determine the pilots eager night forced landing to survive . It is due to complex terrain, nervousness, crew missing – the plane crew had nine people composed of: captain, co-pilot, the second co-pilot, navigator, correspondent in charge of mechanics, machinists, the ad hoc division and air waitress. Hastily boarded the plane’s crew of only four: Pan Jingyin of captain and three mechanics – there is no ground-based navigation, a forced landing action not done, resulting in the crash of the aircraft. The direction of the aircraft’s nose, is back flying in the direction.
support the disclosure of this statement when he was a member of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party Political Bureau of the 莫罗扎姆茨 told reporters: “We first discovered that the plane is not positive across our borders, but it has flown over our territory to the Soviet Union, said: “Let us enter.” but the Soviets refused. we know that if this aircraft continued to fly, it will be shot down, this is the aircraft was why the U-turn turn. “Morrow Zam Benz said he was in a plane crash a few months later, once occasional chat with a senior Soviet officer was informed that this information.
(d) on the fight
said that the aircraft crashed because the aircraft occurred on the fight, cause the aircraft to lose control and crash.
in January 1972, British Observer reporters in Moscow reported that he had to listen to the Soviet Union, the Soviet experts already charred bodies of the Lin Biao sorted out, nine bullets found in the body, showed a honeycomb-shaped. Crash site in ondor Khan, also found scattered a few pistols and bullets. The reporter and this newspaper means to prove that the machine was learned that Lin Biao to be rebels of treason, so shot to Lin Biao, causing infighting and struggle, cause the aircraft to lose control, so the plane crash. (Sun first: “In the desert there,” China Youth Press, 2001, 274)
(5) suicide who died
This focus of conflicts are concentrated in the driver Pan Jingyin body, based on Pan Jingyin analysis is made of outstanding loyalty to the motherland pilot.
say that, Pan Jingyin originally did not know Lin Biao and ran toward the Soviet Union, he thought that Lin Biao to be the night back to Beijing to Dalian, Guangzhou. Lin Biao and the plane’s captain, whether politically or technically, after a rigorous selection process, loyal and reliable. Usually, Pan Jingyin of course, is absolute obedience to the command of Lin Biao and Ye Qun, Liguo, Lin Biao and Ye Qun, Liguo let him fly where he went to where to fly, will not play the slightest discount. But when Lin Biao and Ye Qun, Liguo command he crossed the border to Mongolia, the Soviet Union, he was shaken. He is flying out of the border understand what it means, it is understood that the “Soviet revisionism”, Mongolia repair “are China’s enemy, understand that the rebels the extreme seriousness of the offense of treason, so will not only put an end to his political life, also implicated his family so that they become counter-revolutionary family members overnight. Moreover, Lin Biao’s defection will cause serious consequences at home and abroad, to the motherland and the people with unpredictable disaster. Starting from the highest interests of the party and the people, by the party of education for many years after a fierce ideological struggle, and finally decided to summon up the resolve at the die and aircraft, but also to crush the conspiracy of Lin Biao Traitor evil. So he took a look forced to land the oil is not enough to escape, in fact, who died in suicide party and the people to repay the training and education, use die to abort the Lin Biao and the catastrophe of heroic action may be brought to the country.
average passage of Deng Xiaoping. November 15, 1980, Deng Xiaoping met with the United States, “Christian Science Monitor” editor in chief of El Fil talking about the “1991″ event, said: “It is my personal judgment, the pilot is a good man, because there is the same one plane with a large number of party and state confidential material ready to fly to the Soviet Union to the pilot of this aircraft found to the problem, after a struggle the plane was forced down, but the pilot was killed. “in accordance with Deng Xiaoping’s logic and inference, since “Likewise a pilot of the aircraft” is a good man can be heroic struggle, the pilots of No. 256 on the plane is a good man, but also do not rule out him to take the possibility of suicide who died of action. (Sun first: “In the desert there,” China Youth Press, 2001, 282, and November 24, 1980 “People’s Daily”)