earth all things, nurture life, known as the mother of mankind. However, in recent years, along with the rapid development of China’s industrialization, the earth is constantly subjected to all kinds of pollution damage. Only due to insufficient soil pollution prevention, environmental regulatory fatigue, caused by food and drug safety events occur frequently, since 2008, the country has occurred more than 100 major pollution incidents. Our earth pollution status quo severe, causes are very complex, the formation of distraught “Land of War”.
Earth War One Black land Sorrow
share of total grain production of the northeastern black soil region of the fifth is the most important commodity grain base in China, but not for most people to understand the harsh reality of the black soil to support food production in the past half-century reduced by 50%, and continue to thinning for hundreds of years before the formation of one centimeter black soil is nearly a centimeter per year disappear. At this rate, some black soil will disappear in a few years later, Northeast China’s largest granary capacity also will suffer irreparable loss.
toxic soil: the supremacy of the consequences of GDP
trends In current
soil pollution in China toxic chemicals and heavy metals pollution from the industrial to the agricultural transfer by the city to the countryside, transfer from surface to underground, from upstream to downstream transfer of filth to food chain transfer, and gradually accumulation of pollution is evolving into frequent outbreaks of pollution accidents.the growing pollution
trend is likely to continue for 30 years
“At present, the soil pollution in China was increasingly intensified the situation, prevention and control situation is very grim.” Over the years, the vice chairman of China Society of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences researcher Professor Zhang Weili has been concerned about China’s soil pollution problems soil pollution in China to present a very complex, showing the old and new contaminants coexist, inorganic and organic pollution in a mixed situation. “
“soil pollution in China than in countries should be serious, the increasing trend of pollution is likely to continue for 30 years.” Chinese soil science experts, Gen-Xing Pan, Professor of Nanjing Agricultural University, told the Economic Information Daily “reporters pollution with economic development of the increasingly popular heavy metal pollution, chemical pollution mainly punctate, plastic, electronic waste pollution and agricultural pollution and so on.
Land and Natural Resources Statistics show that more than 10 percent of the national arable land area has been heavy-metal contamination. Nanjing Institute of Environmental Division, Ministry of Environmental Protection researcher a single red, about half of the arable land in southern China part of the city suffered cadmium, arsenic, mercury and other toxic heavy metals and organic pollution of oil; Yangtze River Delta in some cities contiguous farmland by a variety of heavy metal pollution. resulting in 10% of the basic soil loss of productivity, become a “toxic soil”.
pesticide and fertilizer pollution is equally serious. Wei-Li said, China’s pesticide use amounted to 1.3 million tons, 2.5 times the world average. Heilongjiang Agricultural Stations Du Guide webmaster said: “At present, less than 30% of the actual utilization of pesticides and fertilizers, the remaining 70% pollute the environment.” Yunnan Agricultural University, estimated that only 0.1% of the annual large-scale use of pesticides can acting on the target pest, 99.9% of the pesticides into the ecosystem, resulting in a large number of soil heavy metals, hormones, organic pollution.
“not only to increased pollution, but also in the metastatic spread.” said Gen-Xing Pan, present, China’s soil pollution from the industrial to the agricultural transfer from urban to rural transfer from the surface to the underground transfer of toxic chemicals and heavy metals pollution upstream to downstream transfer of pollution from water and soil pollution and the shift to the food chain, the gradual accumulation is evolving into frequent outbreaks of pollution incidents.since
in 2008, the country has more than 100 major pollution incidents, including arsenic, cadmium, lead and heavy metal pollution accidents of more than 30. Which Liuyang cadmium pollution incident has not only polluted the surrounding farms and woodlands of the plant, and two people were killed and more than 500 people cadmium exceeded.frequent outbreaks of pollution incidents in
losses, not only increases the cost of environmental protection governance, social stability and higher costs, the cost of soil pollution remediation is astronomical. Changzhou Pesticide Factory, soil remediation to be 200 million yuan, the Wuxi hudai electroplating factory of chromium pollution remediation costs 8.9 million yuan chemical plant in Suzhou need hundreds of millions to several billion dollars.
each year due to soil pollution caused by the grain production of 10 billion kilograms
exacerbate lead to a significant reduction of beneficial bacteria in the soil
pollution, soil degradation, reduced self-purification capacity, affecting crop yields and quality, harm to human health, and even the risk of environmental revenge.said
Professor Pan Genxing many soils contaminated areas has exceeded the self-purification capacity of the soil, there is no external control intervention, thousands of years later the soil can not be self-purification, and some land will never be able to self-purification, and even the environment revenge. “
First, the imbalance in ecological relationships, and cause deterioration of ecological environment.Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research in
investigation in the Yangtze River Delta and other places of major agricultural products, pesticide residues exceeding the rate of up to 16%, resulting in the paddy fields of biological diversity is declining, continue to lower the stability of the system.
“spit soil eating soil, purify the soil, as ‘volunteers’ of the soil, the presence of earthworms is soil important environmental indicators of soil is of great significance.” Professor Pan Genxing worry, now, the earthworms in the soil. Eupolyphaga and a variety of beneficial microorganisms in a large number of disappeared, greatly reduced the number of frogs of the natural enemies of crop pests, and natural ecosystems facing a crisis.
Yunnan Agricultural University, associate professor Zhou Jianghong found in Hubei, Anhui and other places of farmland, the use of pesticides on arthropod species damage, making the rice paddies balance between natural enemies and pests to be broken.
two soil quality, crop failures degraded.
increase of heavy metal pollution, pesticides, fertilizers, heavy use of soil organic matter decline, soil compaction, resulting in the decline of agricultural production and quality. Chan Chi group, senior agronomist of the Ministry of Agriculture, National Agricultural Technology Promotion Center, due to soil pollution caused by pesticides, fertilizers, and industrial, China’s grain a year to cut 10 billion kilograms.
environmental protection department estimates, the country up to 12 million tons per year due to heavy metal contamination of food, and caused direct economic losses of more than 20 billion yuan.
three heavy metal disease began to appear, the health of people and sustainable agricultural development poses a serious threat.
mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, arsenic and five heavy metals known as heavy metal “top five” fatal hazards. Young Jide, director of the Suzhou Institute of Environmental Science, said, “These pollutants seriously affect child development, to make people sick, carcinogenic, and endanger human life and health.” In the 1970s, Japan had a “Itai-itai disease and cadmium on human pollution of living environment, and the impact is very broad, many victims, so is recognized as a “nuisance disease”.the the
Professor Pan Genxing on the market throughout the country, the survey also showed that about 10 percent of rice exist to excessive heavy metal cadmium. He said: “cadmium rice farmers, self-production and food is undoubtedly a fatal risk.” Worrying is the early symptoms of Itai-itai disease has begun in some areas of southern China and soil pollution caused by disease will be a serious threat to human health and the sustainable development of agriculture, and ultimately harm the descendants of the Chinese nation. “
“would rather poison but also GDP”? Model of industrial urgent reflection
soil pollution, such as invisible “killer”, it is difficult to detect but may directly endanger human health, especially the accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables, grain, will be at the top of the food chain, human beings at risk, and even produce environmental retaliation. Soil increased pollution due to natural disasters, but more man-made, scientific development is the main reason for the deterioration of the environment. “Nanjing Agricultural College, Professor Gen-Xing Pan, soil pollution from the mining and metallurgy, industrial” three wastes, sewage irrigation, solid waste piling up, basically belong to the human factor, the urgent need to reflect on that model of industrial development in recent years.
current, worrying around the performance concept at the core of the pursuit of GDP, industrial development model of unscientific and a large number of illegal sewage, excess sewage. The reporters found in the research, some local development eager to come to “prefer to poison but also the mentality of the GDP”, intentionally or unintentionally, to ignore the environmental protection, lead to the introduction of the enterprise is the introduction of pollution, economic development is the destruction of the environment, “the adverse effects.
face of enterprises that illegally discharge pollutants, some local governments to become the umbrella, walking a fine line through alternative policies, even given the green light, and ultimately trivialize, to nothing. Protection of the environment is not polluted, the statutory duties of governments at all levels. Pollution incidents have exposed around environmental awareness, lack of government oversight, is the shame of the whole society.
“pollution incidents continue to occur to tell people, the lack of reverence and care of the natural environment, indifferent to the public interest and public life, has exposed weak corporate environmental awareness and lack of local government responsibility.” well-off Jiangsu Province Development Research Center, Jiangsu Provincial Party School Professor von governance must reflect on the triumph and the industrial development model, the real implementation of the changing patterns of development policy to achieve sustainable socio-economic development.
black soil loss threaten China’s largest granaries
black layer thinning, refers to the black land topsoil thinning, led directly to support food production, organic matter content decreased, the decline in soil fertility. However, the increase in agricultural science and technology and high-yielding crop grain production under a certain extent, “to cover up the black soil growing thinner, the grim reality of the quality of cultivated land decreased, leading to farmers and relevant departments to relax the protection of the quality of arable land. Experts suggested that, as soon as possible to improve the farmland quality construction regulations, expanding the application of conservation tillage technology, China’s largest grain-producing of the “granary” of the hold with minimum cost.day
“2 2 2 black change oil” and then not have
“previously dug two spades deep black or a shovel after the basic can not see.” three Village farmers Yilan County, Heilongjiang Province, three Gang Cheng first millet from their own ground and grabbed a black, “you Chou Chou, black is not very ‘black’, ‘one or two black-for-2 2 oil’ the day will never have. “
As one of the world’s three major black soil region, the black soil of Northeast total area of about 35.233 million hectares, located in the territory of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, the annual grain production accounted for about one fifth of the country, is an important corn, japonica rice and other commodity grain supply, the amount of food commodities, and adjust the volume ranking first in the country.
the formation of joint research by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences and other institutes, experts, black soil in Northeast Resource Utilization and Development Strategy “pointed out that the beginning of the Northeast and land reclamation when black thickness of 60-80 cm reclaimed 20 years of black soil was reduced to 60-70 cm, reclaimed the black soil of 70-80 years is only 20-30 cm.
the early days, black soil of Heilongjiang Province, mostly more than one meter thick, now immune to find half a meter deep, serious soil erosion areas only epidermis a thin layer of color from black to turn yellow. Heilongjiang Province soil and fertilizer management station owners Hu Ruixuan have some mixed feelings, to form a 1 cm aging black soil about 50 years, half a meter would have a thousand years, and now the black soil of Northeast District average annual loss of 0.3 to 1 cm black soil. Some experts worry that “Without early treatment, some black soil or will disappear in a few years later.”
“thinning of the black soil, meaning the black land topsoil thinning, led directly to support food production and organic matter content can reduce the decline in soil fertility researcher at the Institute of Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, HAN increasing assertion, which is bound to affect our food security.
Heilongjiang Province arable soil and fertilizer management station Zhaodong, NEHE, County urban test showed that the second national soil survey from 1982 to 2007, 25 years, soil organic matter has been the relative decline in 20% of severe regional decline in six percent.
to increasingly Meijin Er, would like to increase would have a lot of fertilizer use. In recent years, the 45-year-old Zhang Yanfeng feel their own rice fields suffering from fertilizer addiction. Zhang Jilin Province QIANGUO Ping Feng Township Black Hills Village, farmer, 10 years ago, an acre of rice, 60 kilos of fertilizer has doubled to 120 pounds, no fertilizer would have halved. Zhang also a bit worried, can now rely on chemical fertilizers increase this to more and Meijin Er, may later fertilizers can not do anything.It is understood that, in Jilin Province is located in the Black Soil Region of Northeast Central “11th Five-Year” period to complete small watershed comprehensive management of 840, the control of soil erosion area of 5600 square kilometers, but the black earth soil erosion has not been effectively controlled, the province is still there is urgent need for 31,500 square km area of soil erosion governance.
a few years after their own land, who are willing to put into protection? “
“Economic Information Daily” reporter learned that the major grain producing areas in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces, local land has been ten years in a row corn, rice is equivalent to a crop, a single absorption of nutrients, coupled with blind fertilization generally soil nutrient imbalances. Land fragmentation, many farmers year-round use of small farm machinery farming, more and more shallow topsoil compaction serious “sunny stiff, rain infiltration soup” is a true portrayal.The increase in high-yielding crop area, irrigation and water conservancy facilities and constantly improve, in particular, the factors supporting the use of chemical fertilizers sharp rise in the increasingly thinning in the black soil at the same time, the black soil in Northeast area of food production is still steadily. But experts pointed out, is precisely the grain production to some extent, “cover up” the grim reality of the black soil layer thinning, decreased quality of arable land, instead easily lead to the farmers and the relevant departments to relax the protection of the quality of arable land. The northeast part of the black soil area in the process of development of grain production overdraft arable output capacity, black soil of the risk of thinning grain production dilute the seriousness of being man-made and natural factors “conspiracy” under the influence of intensified.
“The most important thing is the quality of arable land protection regulations are incomplete, lack of initiative to protect the quality of arable land as the main farmers of arable land use.” Wei-Li, vice chairman of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Soil and Fertilizer Institute, deputy director of the Soil Science Society of The language speaks of the mystery of black soil quality decline of China since the 1980s, rural farmland converted to a one mode of operation, cropland management unit smaller, frequent changes of the right to use the farmers to preserve farmland enthusiasm “after years of not land, who are willing to put into protection? “
technical level but also backward, there is no effective monitoring system will not be able to timely detection of the latest changes in the quality of arable land, can not make accurate restoration program. “Wei-Li, farmland quality testing indicators and methods are obsolete, such as China’s fertility The evaluation of commonly used soil organic matter content, but the actual determination of total organic matter, instead of the active organic matter, the test results do not accurately reflect the arable soil fertility and soil evolution.
In addition, local building bridges, roads will occupy a high-quality black soil, but make it up are relatively barren land, “This is not only the black soil loss, accounting for less acre of an acre.” Even The new land have transformed into black soil conditions, also requires a lot of manpower, material resources. The finishing Director of the Heilongjiang Provincial Department land open any Baihui finishing costs per acre of new land in the balance of arable land 10 million.
NetEase statement: NetEase reproduced above for the purpose of transferring more information that confirmed the description or agree with their views. The article content is for reference only and does not constitute investment advice. Investors pursuant to operate your own risk.
macro, News – NetEase Channel